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Microbiol Spectr. 2014 Oct;2(5). doi: 10.1128/microbiolspec.PLAS-0006-2013.

Plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance.

Author information

1
Lahey Hospital and Medical Center, Burlington, MA 01805.
2
Hadassah-Hebrew University, Jerusalem 91120 Israel.
3
Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA 02114.

Abstract

Three mechanisms for plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) have been discovered since 1998. Plasmid genes qnrA, qnrB, qnrC, qnrD, qnrS, and qnrVC code for proteins of the pentapeptide repeat family that protects DNA gyrase and topoisomerase IV from quinolone inhibition. The qnr genes appear to have been acquired from chromosomal genes in aquatic bacteria, are usually associated with mobilizing or transposable elements on plasmids, and are often incorporated into sul1-type integrons. The second plasmid-mediated mechanism involves acetylation of quinolones with an appropriate amino nitrogen target by a variant of the common aminoglycoside acetyltransferase AAC(6')-Ib. The third mechanism is enhanced efflux produced by plasmid genes for pumps QepAB and OqxAB. PMQR has been found in clinical and environmental isolates around the world and appears to be spreading. The plasmid-mediated mechanisms provide only low-level resistance that by itself does not exceed the clinical breakpoint for susceptibility but nonetheless facilitates selection of higher-level resistance and makes infection by pathogens containing PMQR harder to treat.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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