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J Atten Disord. 2015 Jan 12. pii: 1087054714566076. [Epub ahead of print]

Long-Term Outcomes of ADHD: Academic Achievement and Performance.

Author information

1
Ohio State University, Columbus, USA.
2
Global Health Economics & Outcomes Research, Shire, Wayne, PA, USA Vertex Pharmaceuticals, Boston, MA, USA.
3
BPS International, San Diego, CA, USA jkahle@bpsintl.com.
4
Behavioural Health Medical Strategy, Shire, Wayne, PA, USA.
5
Learning Assessment & Neurocare Centre, West Sussex, UK.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

The aim of this study was to synthesize published data regarding long-term effects of ADHD on information learned (measured via achievement tests) and success within the school environment (academic performance).

METHOD:

A systematic search identified 176 studies (1980-2012) of long-term (≥2 years) academic outcomes with ADHD.

RESULTS:

Achievement test outcomes (79%) and academic performance outcomes (75%) were worse in individuals with untreated ADHD compared with non-ADHD controls, also when IQ difference was controlled (72% and 81%, respectively). Improvement in both outcome groups was associated with treatment, more often for achievement test scores (79%) than academic performance (42%), also when IQ was controlled (100% and 57%, respectively). More achievement test and academic performance outcomes improved with multimodal (100% and 67%, respectively) than pharmacological (75% and 33%) or non-pharmacological (75% and 50%) treatment alone.

CONCLUSION:

ADHD adversely affects long-term academic outcomes. A greater proportion of achievement test outcomes improved with treatment compared with academic performance. Both improved most consistently with multimodal treatment.

KEYWORDS:

ADHD; academic; functional outcomes; systematic review; treatment

PMID:
25583985
DOI:
10.1177/1087054714566076

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