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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 27;112(4):1179-84. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1415466112. Epub 2015 Jan 12.

Multiprotein complex between the GPI-anchored CyRPA with PfRH5 and PfRipr is crucial for Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte invasion.

Author information

1
Malaria Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi, India 110067; and.
2
Malaria Group, International Centre for Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology (ICGEB), New Delhi, India 110067; and School of Biotechnology, Jawaharlal Nehru University (JNU), New Delhi, India 110067 deepakgaur@mail.jnu.ac.in.

Abstract

Erythrocyte invasion by Plasmodium falciparum merozoites is a highly intricate process in which Plasmodium falciparum reticulocyte binding-like homologous protein 5 (PfRH5) is an indispensable parasite ligand that binds with its erythrocyte receptor, Basigin. PfRH5 is a leading blood-stage vaccine candidate because it exhibits limited polymorphisms and elicits potent strain-transcending parasite neutralizing antibodies. However, the mechanism by which it is anchored to the merozoite surface remains unknown because both PfRH5 and the PfRH5-interacting protein (PfRipr) lack transmembrane domains and GPI anchors. Here we have identified a conserved GPI-linked parasite protein, Cysteine-rich protective antigen (CyRPA) as an interacting partner of PfRH5-PfRipr that tethers the PfRH5/PfRipr/CyRPA multiprotein complex on the merozoite surface. CyRPA was demonstrated to be GPI-linked, localized in the micronemes, and essential for erythrocyte invasion. Specific antibodies against the three proteins successfully detected the intact complex in the parasite and coimmunoprecipitated the three interacting partners. Importantly, full-length CyRPA antibodies displayed potent strain-transcending invasion inhibition, as observed for PfRH5. CyRPA does not bind with erythrocytes, suggesting that its parasite neutralizing antibodies likely block its critical interaction with PfRH5-PfRipr, leading to a blockade of erythrocyte invasion. Further, CyRPA and PfRH5 antibody combinations produced synergistic invasion inhibition, suggesting that simultaneous blockade of the PfRH5-Basigin and PfRH5/PfRipr/CyRPA interactions produced an enhanced inhibitory effect. Our discovery of the critical interactions between PfRH5, PfRipr, and the GPI-anchored CyRPA clearly defines the components of the essential PfRH5 adhesion complex for P. falciparum erythrocyte invasion and offers it as a previously unidentified potent target for antimalarial strategies that could abrogate formation of the crucial multiprotein complex.

KEYWORDS:

PfRH5; blood-stage vaccines; erythrocyte invasion; malaria; protein–protein interactions

Comment in

PMID:
25583518
PMCID:
PMC4313826
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1415466112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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