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Infect Dis Clin North Am. 2015 Mar;29(1):29-35. doi: 10.1016/j.idc.2014.11.010. Epub 2015 Jan 9.

Potential sources of Clostridium difficile in human infection.

Author information

1
Department of Infectious Diseases, Center for Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Medical Microbiology, Center for Infectious Diseases, Leiden University Medical Center, Albinusdreef 2, Leiden 2333 ZA, The Netherlands. Electronic address: E.J.Kuijper@lumc.nl.

Abstract

The view of Clostridium difficile infection as a hospital-acquired infection transmitted only by symptomatic patients is changing. Although C difficile is present in food for human consumption, food-borne infection caused by C difficile has never been confirmed. More information on the infective dose and the level of contamination is needed to determine the risk for food-borne exposure to C difficile in humans. The emergence of C difficile polymerase chain reaction (PCR) ribotype 078 in humans is epidemiologically linked to its presence in piglets and calves and their environment, suggesting zoonotic transmission.

KEYWORDS:

Animals; Food; Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus; PCR ribotype 078; Pigs; Spores; Transmission; Zoonosis

PMID:
25582646
DOI:
10.1016/j.idc.2014.11.010
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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