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Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Dec;37(6):E8.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 and associated upstream and downstream proteins in the pathophysiology and management of glioblastoma.


Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive brain tumor with an exceptionally poor patient outcome despite aggressive therapy including surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. This aggressive phenotype may be associated with intratumoral hypoxia, which probably plays a key role in GBM tumor growth, development, and angiogenesis. A key regulator of cellular response to hypoxia is the protein hypoxia-inducible factor–1 (HIF-1). An examination of upstream hypoxic and nonhypoxic regulation of HIF-1 as well as a review of the downstream HIF-1– regulated proteins may provide further insight into the role of this transcription factor in GBM pathophysiology. Recent insights into upstream regulators that intimately interact with HIF-1 could provide potential therapeutic targets for treatment of this tumor. The same is potentially true for HIF-1–mediated pathways of glycolysis-, angiogenesis-, and invasion-promoting proteins. Thus, an understanding of the relationship between HIF-1, its upstream protein regulators, and its downstream transcribed genes in GBM pathogenesis could provide future treatment options for the care of patients with these tumors.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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