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Dermatitis. 2015 Jan-Feb;26(1):49-59. doi: 10.1097/DER.0000000000000097.

North American contact dermatitis group patch test results: 2011-2012.

Author information

1
From the University of Minnesota and the Minneapolis VAMC; University of California, San Francisco; Cleveland Clinic, Ohio; McGill University Health Centre, Montreal; University of Toronto, Canada; Ohio State University, Columbus; Associates in Dermatology, Fort Myers, Fla; Group Health Associates, Cincinnati, Ohio; Dartmouth Medical Center, Lebanon, NH; St. Luke's Roosevelt Hospital Center, New York, NY; Dermatology Specialists, Louisville, KY; Pennsylvania State University Hershey; University of Ottawa, Canada; Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland; and Columbia University Medical Center, New York, NY.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Patch testing is an important diagnostic tool for assessment of allergic contact dermatitis (ACD).

OBJECTIVE:

This study documents the North American Contact Dermatitis Group (NACDG) patch-testing results from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2012.

METHODS:

At 12 centers in North America, patients were tested in a standardized manner with a series of 70 allergens. Data were manually verified and entered into a central database. Descriptive frequencies were calculated, and trends analyzed using χ statistics.

RESULTS:

Four thousand two hundred thirty-eight patients were tested; of these, 2705 patients (63.8%) had at least 1 positive reaction, and 2029 (48.0%) were ultimately determined to have a primary diagnosis of ACD. Four hundred eight patients (9.6%) had occupationally related skin disease. There were 7532 positive allergic reactions. As compared with previous reporting periods (2009-2010 and 2000-2010), positive reaction rates statistically increased for 6 allergens: methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (5.0%; risk ratios [RRs]: 2.01 [1.60-2.52], 1.87 [1.61-2.18]), lanolin alcohol (4.6%; RRs 1.83 [1.45-2.30], 2.10 [1.79-2.47]), cinnamic aldehyde (3.9%; 1.69 [1.32-2.15], 1.53 [1.28-1.82]), glutaral (1.5%; 1.67 [1.13-2.48], 1.31 [1.00-1.71]), paraben mix (1.4%; 1.77 [1.16-2.69], 1.44 [1.09-1.92]), and fragrance mix I (12.1%; RRs 1.42 [1.25-1.61], 1.24 [1.14-1.36]). Compared with the previous decade, positivity rates for all formaldehyde-releasing preservatives significantly decreased (formaldehyde 6.6%; RR, 0.82 [0.73, 0.93]; quaternium-15 6.4% RR 0.75 [0.66, 0.85]; diazolidinyl urea 2.1%; RR, 0.67 [0.54, 0.84]; imidazolidinyl urea 1.6%, 0.60 [0.47, 0.77]; bronopol 1.6%; RR, 0.60 [0.46, 0.77]; DMDM hydantoin 1.6%; RR, 0.59 [0.54, 0.84]). Approximately a quarter of patients had at least 1 relevant allergic reaction to a non-NACDG allergen. In addition, approximately one-fourth to one-third of reactions detected by NACDG allergens would have been hypothetically missed by T.R.U.E. TEST (SmartPractice Denmark, Hillerød, Denmark).

CONCLUSIONS:

These data document the beginning of the epidemic of sensitivity to methylisothiazolinones in North America, which has been well documented in Europe. Patch testing with allergens beyond a standard screening tray is necessary for complete evaluation of occupational and nonoccupational ACD.

PMID:
25581671
DOI:
10.1097/DER.0000000000000097
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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