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Stem Cells Dev. 2015 May 15;24(10):1223-35. doi: 10.1089/scd.2014.0176. Epub 2015 Mar 3.

Inflammatory Chemokines MIP-1δ and MIP-3α Are Involved in the Migration of Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Induced by Hepatoma Cells.

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1 Surgical Research Unit, University Hospitals of Geneva , Geneva, Switzerland .


In vivo, bone marrow-derived multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) have been identified at sites of tumors, suggesting that specific signals mobilize and activate MSC to migrate to areas surrounding tumors. The signals and migratory mechanisms that guide MSC are not well understood. Here, we investigated the migration of human MSC induced by conditioned medium of Huh-7 hepatoma cells (Huh-7 CM). Using a transwell migration system, we showed that human MSC migration was increased in the presence of Huh-7 CM. Using a human cytokine antibody array, we detected increased levels of MIP-1δ and MIP-3α in Huh-7 CM. Recombinant chemokines MIP-1δ and MIP-3α induced MSC migration. Anti-MIP-1δ and anti-MIP-3α antibodies added to Huh-7 CM decreased MSC migration, further suggesting that MIP-1δ and MIP-3α were implicated in the Huh-7 CM-induced MSC migration. By real-time polymerase chain reaction, we observed an absence of chemokine receptors CCR2 and CXCR2 and low expression of CCR1, CCR5, and CCR6 in MSC. Expression of these chemokine receptors was not regulated by Huh-7 CM. Furthermore, matrix metalloproteinase 1 (MMP-1) expression was strongly increased in MSC after incubation with Huh-7 CM, suggesting that MSC migration depends on MMP-1 activity. The signaling pathway MAPK/ERK was activated by Huh-7 CM but its inhibition by PD98059 did not impair Huh-7 CM-induced MSC migration. Further, long-term incubation of MSC with MIP-1δ increased α-smooth muscle actin expression, suggesting its implication in the Huh-7 CM-induced evolvement of MSC into myofibroblasts. In conclusion, we report that two inflammatory cytokines, MIP-1δ and MIP-3α, are able to increase MSC migration in vitro. These cytokines might be responsible for migration and evolvement of MSC into myofibroblasts around tumors.

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