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J Adolesc Health. 2015 Mar;56(3):274-9. doi: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2014.10.264. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Mental health of transgender youth in care at an adolescent urban community health center: a matched retrospective cohort study.

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Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address:
Sidney Borum Jr. Health Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
Social & Behavioral Sciences, Boston University School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
Division of Endocrinology, Boston Children's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts.
Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; The Fenway Institute, Fenway Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Psychiatry, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.



Transgender youth represent a vulnerable population at risk for negative mental health outcomes including depression, anxiety, self-harm, and suicidality. Limited data exist to compare the mental health of transgender adolescents and emerging adults to cisgender youth accessing community-based clinical services; the present study aimed to fill this gap.


A retrospective cohort study of electronic health record data from 180 transgender patients aged 12-29 years seen between 2002 and 2011 at a Boston-based community health center was performed. The 106 female-to-male (FTM) and 74 male-to-female (MTF) patients were matched on gender identity, age, visit date, and race/ethnicity to cisgender controls. Mental health outcomes were extracted and analyzed using conditional logistic regression models. Logistic regression models compared FTM with MTF youth on mental health outcomes.


The sample (N = 360) had a mean age of 19.6 years (standard deviation, 3.0); 43% white, 33% racial/ethnic minority, and 24% race/ethnicity unknown. Compared with cisgender matched controls, transgender youth had a twofold to threefold increased risk of depression, anxiety disorder, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, self-harm without lethal intent, and both inpatient and outpatient mental health treatment (all p < .05). No statistically significant differences in mental health outcomes were observed comparing FTM and MTF patients, adjusting for age, race/ethnicity, and hormone use.


Transgender youth were found to have a disparity in negative mental health outcomes compared with cisgender youth, with equally high burden in FTM and MTF patients. Identifying gender identity differences in clinical settings and providing appropriate services and supports are important steps in addressing this disparity.


Adolescent; Gender minority; Health disparity; Mental health; Transgender

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