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Brain Behav Immun. 2015 May;46:23-32. doi: 10.1016/j.bbi.2014.12.026. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

The role of neutrophil gelatinase associated lipocalin (NGAL) as biological constituent linking depression and cardiovascular disease.

Author information

1
Department of Molecular Neurobiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
2
Department of Molecular Neurobiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Department of Neurology and Alzheimer Research Center, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Molecular Neurobiology, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands; Department of Cardiology, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Depression is more common in patients with cardiovascular disease than in the general population. Conversely, depression is a risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease. Comorbidity of these two pathologies worsens prognosis. Several mechanisms have been indicated in the link between cardiovascular disease and depression, including inflammation. Systemic inflammation can have long-lasting effects on the central nervous system, which could be associated with depression. NGAL is an inflammatory marker and elevated plasma levels are associated with both cardiovascular disease and depression. While patients with depression show elevated NGAL levels, in patients with comorbid heart failure, NGAL levels are significantly higher and associated with depression scores. Systemic inflammation evokes NGAL expression in the brain. This is considered a proinflammatory effect as it is involved in microglia activation and reactive astrocytosis. Animal studies support a direct link between NGAL and depression/anxiety associated behavior. In this review we focus on the role of NGAL in linking depression and cardiovascular disease.

KEYWORDS:

Cardiovascular disease; Depression; Heart failure; Inflammation; Lcn-2; NGAL; Neuroinflammation

PMID:
25576802
DOI:
10.1016/j.bbi.2014.12.026
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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