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Homeopathy. 2015 Jan;104(1):15-23. doi: 10.1016/j.homp.2014.05.002. Epub 2014 Jun 16.

Effects of homeopathic Anax imperator on behavioural and pain models in mice.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli, Turkey. Electronic address: oguzmutlu80@hotmail.com.
2
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli, Turkey. Electronic address: gunerulak@yahoo.com.
3
Department of Histology and Embriyology, Ordu University Medical Faculty, 52000 Ordu, Turkey. Electronic address: skokturk@mynet.com.
4
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli, Turkey. Electronic address: ikcelikyurt@gmail.com.
5
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli, Turkey. Electronic address: firuzanakar@gmail.com.
6
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Kocaeli University, 41380 Kocaeli, Turkey. Electronic address: faruk.erden@isbank.net.tr.

Abstract

BACKGOUND:

Homeopathy is a medical theory and practice that asserts that disease can be cured by remedies that produce symptoms in a healthy person similar to those suffered by a patient with a malady.

METHODS:

The aim of this study was to investigate effects of homeopathic Anax imperator (dragonfly) (Anax-i 30c and Anax-i 200c) in the forced swim test (FST), elevated plus-maze (EPM) test, hot plate (HP) test and open field test and examined NPY1 receptor expression, in naive mice.

RESULTS:

In the FST, treatment with Anax-i 30c or Anax-i 200c significantly diminished immobility time while in EPM test, Anax-i 200c increased the percentage of time spent in open arms as well as the percentage of open arm/total arms. In the HP test, Anax-i 30c or Anax-i 200c decreased the total time mice spent licking their hind paws while in open field test, treatment with Anax-i 200c increased the total distance and speed mice traveled compared to the control group. Three weeks of daily injections with Anax-i 30c or Anax-i 200c caused significant weight loss in mice. Anax-i 30c or Anax-i 200c treatment significantly decreased NPY1 receptor expression, and Anax-i 30c also decreased NPY2 receptor expression.

CONCLUSION:

These results suggest that the homeopathic Anax-i exerts antidepressant, anxiolytic and analgesic-like effects and causes hyperlocomotion and weight loss.

KEYWORDS:

Adipokinetic hormone; Anax imperator; Behavioral models; Homeopathy; Mice; Neuroreceptor

PMID:
25576267
DOI:
10.1016/j.homp.2014.05.002
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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