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Gastroenterology. 2015 May;148(6):1244-60.e16. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.12.035. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Nutrients, foods, and colorectal cancer prevention.

Author information

1
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
2
Department of Immunology and Infectious Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Genetics and Complex Diseases, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
3
Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Harvard Medical School, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Gastroenterology, Massachusetts General Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts. Electronic address: achan@mgh.harvard.edu.

Abstract

Diet has an important role in the development of colorectal cancer. In the past few decades, findings from extensive epidemiologic and experimental investigations have linked consumption of several foods and nutrients to the risk of colorectal neoplasia. Calcium, fiber, milk, and whole grains have been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer, and red meat and processed meat have been associated with an increased risk. There is substantial evidence for the potential chemopreventive effects of vitamin D, folate, fruits, and vegetables. Nutrients and foods also may interact, as a dietary pattern, to influence colorectal cancer risk. Diet likely influences colorectal carcinogenesis through several interacting mechanisms. These include the direct effects on immune responsiveness and inflammation, and the indirect effects of overnutrition and obesity-risk factors for colorectal cancer. Emerging evidence also implicates the gut microbiota as an important effector in the relationship between diet and cancer. Dietary modification therefore has the promise of reducing colorectal cancer incidence.

KEYWORDS:

Colorectal Cancer; Diet; Microbiota; Prevention

PMID:
25575572
PMCID:
PMC4409470
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2014.12.035
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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