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Gastroenterology. 2015 May;148(6):1107-19. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2014.12.036. Epub 2015 Jan 6.

Food, immunity, and the microbiome.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine I, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria. Electronic address: herbert.tilg@i-med.ac.at.
2
Department of Internal Medicine I, Endocrinology, Gastroenterology and Metabolism, Medical University Innsbruck, Innsbruck, Austria.

Abstract

There is increasing evidence that ingested diet-borne components are involved in the pathogenesis of disorders such as inflammatory bowel diseases, atherosclerosis, and type 2 diabetes. Nutrients can have short- and long-term effects in shaping the composition of the microbiota. Western diets (enriched in fat, phosphatidylcholine, and L-carnitine) promote inflammation and atherosclerosis through specific fatty acids and degradation products such as trimethylamine N-oxide. Other dietary factors such as carbazoles or tryptophan-enriched proteins have anti-inflammatory properties-partly via activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptors. The microbiota and its metabolic machinery produce a myriad of metabolites that serve as important messengers between the diet, microbiota, and host. Short-chain fatty acids affect immune responses and epithelial integrity via G-protein-coupled receptors and epigenetic mechanisms. By increasing our understanding of interactions between diet, immunity, and the microbiota, we might develop food-based approaches to prevent or treat many diseases. There now is scientific evidence to support the adage "we are what we eat," and this process begins in early life.

KEYWORDS:

Anti-Inflammatory; Inflammation; Malnutrition; Metabolome; Western Diet

PMID:
25575570
DOI:
10.1053/j.gastro.2014.12.036
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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