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Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2015 Jan;39(1):433-40. doi: 10.1016/j.etap.2014.12.005. Epub 2014 Dec 20.

Organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw buffalo milk from agroindustrial areas in Assiut, Egypt.

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Department of Food Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Sohag University, Sohag, Egypt.
Department of Forensic Medicine and Toxicology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt. Electronic address:


Raw buffalo milk samples from the agroindustrial zone in upper Egypt were analyzed for the presence of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Five organochlorine pesticides namely, alachlor, dieldrin, hexachlorobenzene, lindane and methoxychlor and three organophosphorus pesticides chlorpyrifos, malathion, and parathion-methyl were detected in the milk samples. In 44% of the samples, the concentrations of lindane and malathion residues exceeded tolerance levels set by the European Commission (EC) in 2008. In addition, the concentrations of chlorpyrifos, methoxychlor, and hexachlorobenzene residues exceeded the 2008 EC maximum residual limits (MRLs) by 33, 66, and 88% of the examined samples, respectively. However, the levels of alachlor, dieldrin, and parathion-methyl residues were below EC MRLs. The results of this study confirm the risks of pesticide residues exposure that threaten consumer health in Egypt. Thus, we recommend that pesticide residue monitoring programs be instituted in all the developing countries.


Buffalo milk; GC/MS; Multi-pesticide residues; Upper Egypt

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