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Parasite Immunol. 2015 Mar;37(3):150-8. doi: 10.1111/pim.12173.

Persistence of Toxoplasma gondii in the central nervous system: a fine-tuned balance between the parasite, the brain and the immune system.

Author information

1
Inserm U1043, Toulouse, France; CNRS U5282, Toulouse, France; Centre de Physiopathologie de Toulouse Purpan (CPTP), Université de Toulouse, UPS, Toulouse, France.

Abstract

Upon infection of humans and animals with Toxoplasma gondii, the parasites persist as intraneuronal cysts that are controlled, but not eliminated by the immune system. In particular, intracerebral T cells are crucial in the control of T. gondii infection and are supported by essential functions from other leukocyte populations. Additionally, brain-resident cells including astrocytes, microglia and neurons contribute to the intracerebral immune response by the production of cytokines, chemokines and expression of immunoregulatory cell surface molecules, such as major histocompatibility (MHC) antigens. However, the in vivo behaviour of these individual cell populations, specifically their interaction during cerebral toxoplasmosis, remains to be elucidated. We discuss here what is known about the function of T cells, recruited myeloid cells and brain-resident cells, with particular emphasis on the potential cross-regulation of these cell populations, in governing cerebral toxoplasmosis.

KEYWORDS:

T cells; Toxoplasma gondii; astrocytes; microglia; monocytes; neurons

PMID:
25573476
DOI:
10.1111/pim.12173
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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