Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Am Coll Cardiol. 2015 Jan 6;65(1):43-51. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2014.10.024.

Healthy lifestyle in the primordial prevention of cardiovascular disease among young women.

Author information

1
Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana. Electronic address: achomist@indiana.edu.
2
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Division of Preventive Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
3
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.
4
Department of Medicine, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts.
5
Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts; Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts; Department of Epidemiology, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, Massachusetts.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Overall mortality rates from coronary heart disease (CHD) in the United States have declined in recent decades, but the rate has plateaued among younger women. The potential for further reductions in mortality rates among young women through changes in lifestyle is unknown.

OBJECTIVES:

The aim of this study was to estimate the proportion of CHD cases and clinical cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among young women that might be attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle.

METHODS:

A prospective analysis was conducted among 88,940 women ages 27 to 44 years at baseline in the Nurses' Health Study II who were followed from 1991 to 2011. Lifestyle factors were updated repeatedly by questionnaire. A healthy lifestyle was defined as not smoking, a normal body mass index, physical activity ≥ 2.5 h/week, television viewing ≤ 7 h/week, diet in the top 40% of the Alternative Healthy Eating Index-2010, and 0.1 to 14.9 g/day of alcohol. To estimate the proportion of CHD and clinical CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) that could be attributed to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle, we calculated the population-attributable risk percent.

RESULTS:

During 20 years of follow-up, we documented 456 incident CHD cases. In multivariable-adjusted models, nonsmoking, a healthy body mass index, exercise, and a healthy diet were independently and significantly associated with lower CHD risk. Compared with women with no healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio for CHD for women with 6 lifestyle factors was 0.08 (95% confidence interval: 0.03 to 0.22). Approximately 73% (95% confidence interval: 39% to 89%) of CHD cases were attributable to poor adherence to a healthy lifestyle. Similarly, 46% (95% confidence interval: 43% to 49%) of clinical CVD risk factor cases were attributable to a poor lifestyle.

CONCLUSIONS:

Primordial prevention through maintenance of a healthy lifestyle among young women may substantially lower the burden of CVD.

KEYWORDS:

coronary disease; diabetes; epidemiology; hypercholesterolemia; hypertension; risk factors

Comment in

PMID:
25572509
PMCID:
PMC4291551
DOI:
10.1016/j.jacc.2014.10.024
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for PubMed Central
Loading ...
Support Center