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PLoS Genet. 2015 Jan 8;11(1):e1004905. doi: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1004905. eCollection 2015 Jan.

An AP endonuclease functions in active DNA demethylation and gene imprinting in Arabidopsis [corrected].

Author information

1
Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Science, Peking University, Beijing, China.
2
Department of Genetics, University of Córdoba/Maimonides Institute for Biomedical Research of Cordoba (IMIBIC)/Reina Sofía University Hospital, Córdoba, Spain.
3
State Key Laboratory of Protein and Plant Gene Research, School of Life Sciences and Peking-Tsinghua Center for Life Science, Peking University, Beijing, China.
4
Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.
5
Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
6
Shanghai Center for Plant Stress Biology, Shanghai Institutes for Biological Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China; Department of Horticulture & Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.

Abstract

Active DNA demethylation in plants occurs through base excision repair, beginning with removal of methylated cytosine by the ROS1/DME subfamily of 5-methylcytosine DNA glycosylases. Active DNA demethylation in animals requires the DNA glycosylase TDG or MBD4, which functions after oxidation or deamination of 5-methylcytosine, respectively. However, little is known about the steps following DNA glycosylase action in the active DNA demethylation pathways in plants and animals. We show here that the Arabidopsis APE1L protein has apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease activities and functions downstream of ROS1 and DME. APE1L and ROS1 interact in vitro and co-localize in vivo. Whole genome bisulfite sequencing of ape1l mutant plants revealed widespread alterations in DNA methylation. We show that the ape1l/zdp double mutant displays embryonic lethality. Notably, the ape1l+/-zdp-/- mutant shows a maternal-effect lethality phenotype. APE1L and the DNA phosphatase ZDP are required for FWA and MEA gene imprinting in the endosperm and are important for seed development. Thus, APE1L is a new component of the active DNA demethylation pathway and, together with ZDP, regulates gene imprinting in Arabidopsis.

PMID:
25569774
PMCID:
PMC4287435
DOI:
10.1371/journal.pgen.1004905
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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