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Am J Ther. 2016 May-Jun;23(3):e880-93. doi: 10.1097/MJT.0000000000000191.

Sequential Therapy or Standard Triple Therapy for Helicobacter pylori Infection: An Updated Systematic Review.

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1Department of Gastroenterology, West China Hospital of Sichuan University, Chengdu, Sichuan, China; and 2Department of Gastroenterology, The Second People's Hospital of Chengdu, Sichuan, China.


The effectiveness of standard triple therapy (STT) for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori has decreased recently. Sequential therapy (SQT) is a new regimen proposed to address this problem. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of SQT versus STT for H. pylori eradication. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases up to July 2014. The risk ratios (RRs) of eradication rate were pooled, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Thirty-six randomized clinical trials including a total of 10,316 patients met the inclusion criteria. The RR for eradication of H. pylori with SQT compared with STT was 1.14 (95% CI: 1.09-1.17), the eradication rates were 84.1% and 75.1%, respectively. There was significant heterogeneity between trial results (I = 73%; P < 0.00001). Subgroup analyses showed that SQT was superior to both 7- and 10-day STT, but not significantly better than 14-day STT. This superiority existed when patients were treated with either metronidazole or tinidazole. Patients with single clarithromycin-resistant strain showed a greater benefit of SQT over STT (eradication rates 80.9% vs. 40.7%), RR = 1.98 (95% CI: 1.33-2.94). There was no significant difference between groups in terms of the risk of adverse effects. In conclusion, SQT is more efficacious than STT (7 days and 10 days) in the eradication of HP, but the pooled rate seemed suboptimal. Further research is needed to develop more effective therapeutic approaches. Surveillance of resistance rates should be performed to guide treatment.

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