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Neuron. 2015 Jan 7;85(1):11-26. doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2014.10.047.

Prediction as a humanitarian and pragmatic contribution from human cognitive neuroscience.

Author information

1
Poitras Center for Affective Disorders Research at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Brain and Cognitive Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Institute for Medical Engineering and Science, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. Electronic address: gabrieli@mit.edu.
2
Poitras Center for Affective Disorders Research at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Department of Otology and Laryngology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.
3
Poitras Center for Affective Disorders Research at the McGovern Institute for Brain Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

Abstract

Neuroimaging has greatly enhanced the cognitive neuroscience understanding of the human brain and its variation across individuals (neurodiversity) in both health and disease. Such progress has not yet, however, propelled changes in educational or medical practices that improve people's lives. We review neuroimaging findings in which initial brain measures (neuromarkers) are correlated with or predict future education, learning, and performance in children and adults; criminality; health-related behaviors; and responses to pharmacological or behavioral treatments. Neuromarkers often provide better predictions (neuroprognosis), alone or in combination with other measures, than traditional behavioral measures. With further advances in study designs and analyses, neuromarkers may offer opportunities to personalize educational and clinical practices that lead to better outcomes for people.

PMID:
25569345
PMCID:
PMC4287988
DOI:
10.1016/j.neuron.2014.10.047
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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