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Int J Mol Sci. 2015 Jan 5;16(1):1066-95. doi: 10.3390/ijms16011066.

Ca2+-dependent regulations and signaling in skeletal muscle: from electro-mechanical coupling to adaptation.

Author information

1
Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medcine, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, Cologne 50933, Germany. Gehlert@dshs-koeln.de.
2
Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medcine, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, Cologne 50933, Germany. w.bloch@dshs-koeln.de.
3
Institute of Cardiovascular Research and Sport Medicine, Department of Molecular and Cellular Sport Medcine, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, Cologne 50933, Germany. Suhr@dshs-koeln.de.

Abstract

Calcium (Ca2+) plays a pivotal role in almost all cellular processes and ensures the functionality of an organism. In skeletal muscle fibers, Ca(2+) is critically involved in the innervation of skeletal muscle fibers that results in the exertion of an action potential along the muscle fiber membrane, the prerequisite for skeletal muscle contraction. Furthermore and among others, Ca(2+) regulates also intracellular processes, such as myosin-actin cross bridging, protein synthesis, protein degradation and fiber type shifting by the control of Ca(2+)-sensitive proteases and transcription factors, as well as mitochondrial adaptations, plasticity and respiration. These data highlight the overwhelming significance of Ca(2+) ions for the integrity of skeletal muscle tissue. In this review, we address the major functions of Ca(2+) ions in adult muscle but also highlight recent findings of critical Ca(2+)-dependent mechanisms essential for skeletal muscle-regulation and maintenance.

PMID:
25569087
PMCID:
PMC4307291
DOI:
10.3390/ijms16011066
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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