Format

Send to

Choose Destination
J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Jan;135(1):3-13; quiz 14. doi: 10.1016/j.jaci.2014.11.012.

The gut microbiota and inflammatory noncommunicable diseases: associations and potentials for gut microbiota therapies.

Author information

1
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Department of Clinical Sciences, Pediatrics, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden. Electronic address: christina.west@umu.se.
2
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Department of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, University of Marburg, Marburg, Germany.
3
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
4
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.
5
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Murdoch Childrens Research Institute and Department of Pediatrics, University of Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
6
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Child Health research Unit, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia.
7
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; School of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia.
8
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Faculty of Medicine, Monash University, Clayton, Australia.
9
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Functional Foods Forum, University of Turku, Turku, Finland.
10
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Department of Paediatrics and School of Public Health, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China.
11
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Department of Neonatology, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia.
12
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Copenhagen Prospective Studies on Asthma in Childhood, Health Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark.
13
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Division of Allergy, Department of Pediatrics, Nippon Medical School, Tokyo, Japan.
14
International Inflammation (in-FLAME) Network of the World Universities Network; Tolerance Immunitaire, Université de Nice Sophia-Antipolis, Nice, France.

Abstract

Rapid environmental transition and modern lifestyles are likely driving changes in the biodiversity of the human gut microbiota. With clear effects on physiologic, immunologic, and metabolic processes in human health, aberrations in the gut microbiome and intestinal homeostasis have the capacity for multisystem effects. Changes in microbial composition are implicated in the increasing propensity for a broad range of inflammatory diseases, such as allergic disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), obesity, and associated noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). There are also suggestive implications for neurodevelopment and mental health. These diverse multisystem influences have sparked interest in strategies that might favorably modulate the gut microbiota to reduce the risk of many NCDs. For example, specific prebiotics promote favorable intestinal colonization, and their fermented products have anti-inflammatory properties. Specific probiotics also have immunomodulatory and metabolic effects. However, when evaluated in clinical trials, the effects are variable, preliminary, or limited in magnitude. Fecal microbiota transplantation is another emerging therapy that regulates inflammation in experimental models. In human subjects it has been successfully used in cases of Clostridium difficile infection and IBD, although controlled trials are lacking for IBD. Here we discuss relationships between gut colonization and inflammatory NCDs and gut microbiota modulation strategies for their treatment and prevention.

KEYWORDS:

Fecal microbiota transplantation; gut microbiome; inflammation; noncommunicable diseases; prebiotics; probiotics; short-chain fatty acids

PMID:
25567038
DOI:
10.1016/j.jaci.2014.11.012
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free full text

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science Icon for Linkoping University Electronic Press
Loading ...
Support Center