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Front Oncol. 2014 Dec 15;4:364. doi: 10.3389/fonc.2014.00364. eCollection 2014.

The host microenvironment influences prostate cancer invasion, systemic spread, bone colonization, and osteoblastic metastasis.

Author information

1
Program for Skeletal Disease and Tumor Metastasis, Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis, Center for Cancer and Cell Biology, Van Andel Research Institute , Grand Rapids, MI , USA ; Program for Skeletal Disease and Tumor Metastasis, Laboratory of Integrin Signaling and Tumorigenesis, Center for Cancer and Cell Biology, Van Andel Research Institute , Grand Rapids, MI , USA.
2
Program for Skeletal Disease and Tumor Metastasis, Laboratory of Tumor Microenvironment and Metastasis, Center for Cancer and Cell Biology, Van Andel Research Institute , Grand Rapids, MI , USA.
3
Program for Skeletal Disease and Tumor Metastasis, Laboratory of Integrin Signaling and Tumorigenesis, Center for Cancer and Cell Biology, Van Andel Research Institute , Grand Rapids, MI , USA.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of cancer death in men worldwide. Most PCa deaths are due to osteoblastic bone metastases. What triggers PCa metastasis to the bone and what causes osteoblastic lesions remain unanswered. A major contributor to PCa metastasis is the host microenvironment. Here, we address how the primary tumor microenvironment influences PCa metastasis via integrins, extracellular proteases, and transient epithelia-mesenchymal transition (EMT) to promote PCa progression, invasion, and metastasis. We discuss how the bone-microenvironment influences metastasis; where chemotactic cytokines favor bone homing, adhesion molecules promote colonization, and bone-derived signals induce osteoblastic lesions. Animal models that fully recapitulate human PCa progression from primary tumor to bone metastasis are needed to understand the PCa pathophysiology that leads to bone metastasis. Better delineation of the specific processes involved in PCa bone metastasize is needed to prevent or treat metastatic PCa. Therapeutic regimens that focus on the tumor microenvironment could add to the PCa pharmacopeia.

KEYWORDS:

EMT; bone metastasis; cancer; prostate; tumor microenvironment

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