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Int J Nanomedicine. 2014 Dec 15;9 Suppl 2:261-9. doi: 10.2147/IJN.S57920. eCollection 2014.

Biokinetics of zinc oxide nanoparticles: toxicokinetics, biological fates, and protein interaction.

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Department of Food Science and Technology, Seoul Women's University, Seoul, South Korea.
Center for Intelligent Nano Bio Materials (CINBM), Department of Bioinspired Science and Department of Chemistry and Nanoscience, Ewha Womans University, Seoul, South Korea.


Biokinetic studies of zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles involve systematic and quantitative analyses of absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in plasma and tissues of whole animals after exposure. A full understanding of the biokinetics provides basic information about nanoparticle entry into systemic circulation, target organs of accumulation and toxicity, and elimination time, which is important for predicting the long-term toxic potential of nanoparticles. Biokinetic behaviors can be dependent on physicochemical properties, dissolution property in biological fluids, and nanoparticle-protein interaction. Moreover, the determination of biological fates of ZnO nanoparticles in the systemic circulation and tissues is critical in interpreting biokinetic behaviors and predicting toxicity potential as well as mechanism. This review focuses on physicochemical factors affecting the biokinetics of ZnO nanoparticles, in concert with understanding bioavailable fates and their interaction with proteins.


ZnO nanoparticles; biokinetics; distribution; excretion; fate; interaction

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