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J Med Econ. 2015 Apr;18(4):312-22. doi: 10.3111/13696998.2014.1003644. Epub 2015 Feb 6.

Brain metastases in patients with ALK+ non-small cell lung cancer: clinical symptoms, treatment patterns and economic burden.

Author information

1
Analysis Group, Inc. , Montreal, QC , Canada.

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Brain metastases (BM) are highly prevalent among anaplastic lymphoma kinase positive (ALK+) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients; yet little is known about their real-world treatment patterns and clinical and economic burdens. This study aimed to describe these patients' treatment patterns, symptoms, and costs.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

Retrospective study pooling data from three large administrative databases in the US (08/2011-06/2013). ALK+ NSCLC patients with BM and continuous enrollment for ≥ 60 days before and ≥ 30 days after the first observed BM diagnosis were identified by pharmacy records for crizotinib among patients with lung cancer and BM diagnostic codes.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:

Treatment patterns, symptoms, healthcare resource utilization, and costs, before and after BM diagnosis.

RESULTS:

Of the 213 crizotinib patients with BM diagnoses meeting the selection criteria, 23.0% had BM prior to NSCLC diagnosis; 47.4% had BM prior to crizotinib initiation; 19.2% during crizotinib treatment; and 10.3% post-crizotinib treatment. For those diagnosed with BM after NSCLC diagnosis, the median time between the NSCLC and BM diagnoses was 88 days. Following the first observed BM diagnosis, 88.7% used chemotherapy, 63.4% had radiotherapy, and 31.9% had stereotactic radiosurgery. The prevalence of BM-related symptoms substantially increased post-BM-diagnosis: fatigue (from 15% to 39%), headaches (from 5% to 24%), and depression (from 5% to 15%). Monthly costs per patient averaged $5983 before the BM diagnosis and $22,645 after diagnosis. Patients' resource utilization increased significantly post-BM-diagnosis, with a 3-fold increase in OP visits and a 6-fold increase in IP stays. Post-BM-diagnosis costs were driven by pharmacy (42.0%), inpatient (29.6%), and outpatient costs (26.0%).

LIMITATIONS:

The study sample was limited to crizotinib-treated patients.

CONCLUSIONS:

Post-BM-diagnosis, patients experience high symptom burden. Post-BM-diagnosis, treatment is highly variable and costly: average monthly costs per patient almost quadrupled post-BM-diagnosis.

KEYWORDS:

Brain neoplasms; Costs and cost analysis; Crizotinib; Neoplasm metastasis; Non-small-cell lung cancer; Symptoms

PMID:
25565443
DOI:
10.3111/13696998.2014.1003644
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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