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Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 May;69(5):632-7. doi: 10.1038/ejcn.2014.269. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

A cross-over experiment to investigate possible mechanisms for lower BMIs in people who habitually eat breakfast.

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Department of Life Sciences, University of Roehampton, London, UK.
Centre for Health and Wellbeing Research, University of Northampton, Northampton, UK.
Department of Sport, Health and Exercise Science, University of Hull, Hull, UK.



The body mass index (BMI) of breakfast eaters is frequently reported to be lower compared with that of breakfast skippers. This is not explained by differences in energy intakes, indicating there may be other mechanisms serving to drive this paradoxical association between breakfast and BMI. This study aimed to investigate the effect of eating breakfast versus morning fasting on measures predominantly of metabolism in lean and overweight participants who habitually eat or skip breakfast.


Participants (n=37) were recruited into four groups on the basis of BMI (lean and overweight) and breakfast habit (breakfast eater and breakfast skipper). Participants were randomly assigned to a breakfast experimental condition, breakfast eating or no breakfast, for 7 days and then completed the alternative condition. At the end of each breakfast experimental condition, measurements were made before and after a high carbohydrate breakfast of 2274 ± 777 kJ or a rest period. Resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of food (TEF), blood glucose, insulin and leptin levels were recorded. Hunger and 'morningness' were assessed and pedometers worn.


Lean participants had lower fasting insulin levels (P=0.045) and higher insulin concentrations following breakfast (P=0.001). BMI and breakfast habit did not interact with the experimental breakfast condition, with the exception of hunger ratings; breakfast eaters were hungrier in the mornings compared with breakfast skippers in the no breakfast condition (P=0.001).


There is little evidence from this study for a metabolic-based mechanism to explain lower BMIs in breakfast eaters.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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