Send to

Choose Destination
Public Health Nutr. 2015 Nov;18(16):2952-61. doi: 10.1017/S1368980014002912. Epub 2015 Jan 7.

Socio-economic characteristics, living conditions and diet quality are associated with food insecurity in France.

Author information

1ORS PACA,Southeastern Health Regional Observatory,Marseille,France.
4INRA (Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique),UMR 1260 'Nutrition,Obesity and Risk of Thrombosis',Marseille,France.
6Centre for Research in Epidemiology and Population Health,INSERM U1018,Villejuif,France.
7ANSES,Risk Assessment Department,Dietary Survey Unit,Maisons-Alfort,France.
8INRA-ALISS,UR 1303,Ivry,France.



To assess the prevalence of household food insecurity (FI) in France and to describe its associations with socio-economic factors, health behaviours, diet quality and cost (estimated using mean food prices).


Cross-sectional nationally representative survey. FI was assessed using an adapted version of the US Department of Agriculture's Food Insufficiency Indicator; dietary intake was assessed using a 7 d open-ended food record; and individual demographic, socio-economic and behavioural variables were assessed using self-administered questionnaires and interviews. Individuals experiencing FI were compared with food-secure individuals, the latter being divided into four categories according to quartiles of their income per consumption unit (FS1 to FS4). Differences among categories were analysed using χ² tests, ANOVA and tests for trend.


Individual and National Dietary Survey (INCA2), 2006-2007.


Adults aged 18-79 years (n 2624).


Individuals experiencing FI represented 12·2% of the population. They were on average younger, more frequently women and single parents with children compared with those in the other four categories. Their mean income per consumption unit was higher than that in the FS1 category, but they reported poorer material and housing conditions. The prevalence of smoking and the mean daily time spent watching television were also higher in the FI category. No significant difference among categories was found for energy intake, but mean intakes of fruits, vegetables and fish were lower, and diet quality was slightly but significantly poorer in the FI category. Daily diet cost was also lower in the FI category.


France is not spared by FI. FI should be routinely monitored at the national level and research should be promoted to identify effective strategies to reduce nutrition inequalities in France.


Diet; Energy density; Food insecurity; Income; Nutrient density

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Cambridge University Press
Loading ...
Support Center