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Horm Behav. 2015 Mar;69:59-67. doi: 10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.12.008. Epub 2015 Jan 3.

Long-term effects of oxandrolone treatment in childhood on neurocognition, quality of life and social-emotional functioning in young adults with Turner syndrome.

Author information

1
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Radboud University Medical Center, 471, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Electronic address: Kim.Freriks@radboudumc.nl.
2
Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, 118/925, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
3
Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus Medical Centre/Sophia Children's Hospital, Dr. Molewaterplein 60, 3015 GJ Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Pediatrics, Albert Schweitzer Hospital, P.O. Box 444, 3300 AK Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
4
Department of Pediatrics, Leiden University Medical Center, J6S, P.O. Box 9600, 2300 RC Leiden, The Netherlands.
5
Department of Pediatrics, Radboud University Medical Center, 804, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
6
Department of Pediatrics, Erasmus Medical Centre/Sophia Children's Hospital, Dr. Molewaterplein 60, 3015 GJ Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
7
Department of Human Genetics, Radboud University Medical Center, 848, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
8
Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Endocrinology, Radboud University Medical Center, 471, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
9
Department of Medical Psychology, Radboud University Medical Center, 118/925, P.O. Box 9101, 6500 HB Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Centre of Excellence for Korsakoff and Alcohol-Related Cognitive Disorders, Vincent van Gogh Institute for Psychiatry, Venray, The Netherlands; Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and Behaviour, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Abstract

Turner syndrome (TS) is the result of (partial) absence of one X-chromosome. Besides short stature, gonadal dysgenesis and other physical aspects, TS women have typical psychological features. Since psychological effects of androgen exposure in childhood probably are long-lasting, we explored long-term psychological functioning after oxandrolone (Ox) therapy during childhood in adults with TS in terms of neurocognition, quality of life and social-emotional functioning. During the initial study, girls were treated with growth hormone (GH) combined with placebo (Pl), Ox 0.03 mg/kg/day, or Ox 0.06 mg/kg/day from the age of eight, and estrogen from the age of twelve. Sixty-eight women participated in the current double-blinded follow-up study (mean age 24.0 years, mean time since stopping GH/Ox 8.7 years). We found no effects on neurocognition. Concerning quality of life women treated with Ox had higher anxiety levels (STAI 37.4 ± 8.4 vs 31.8 ± 5.0, p=0.002) and higher scores on the depression subscale of the SCL-90-R (25.7 ± 10.7 vs 20.5 ± 4.7, p=0.01). Regarding social-emotional functioning, emotion perception for fearful faces was lower in the Ox-treated patients, without effect on interpersonal behavior. Our exploratory study is the first to suggest that androgen treatment in adolescence possibly has long-term effects on adult quality of life and social-emotional functioning. However, differences are small and clinical implications of our results seem limited. Therefore we would not recommend against the use of Ox in light of psychological consequences.

KEYWORDS:

Androgen; Intelligence; Neurocognition; Psychosexual wellbeing; Quality of life; Social–emotional functioning; Turner syndrome

PMID:
25562712
DOI:
10.1016/j.yhbeh.2014.12.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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