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Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol. 2015 Feb;16(2):110-23. doi: 10.1038/nrm3932. Epub 2015 Jan 5.

Mechanisms of retinoic acid signalling and its roles in organ and limb development.

Author information

1
Development, Aging, and Regeneration Program, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, 10901 N. Torrey Pines Road, La Jolla, California 92037, USA.

Abstract

Retinoic acid (RA) signalling has a central role during vertebrate development. RA synthesized in specific locations regulates transcription by interacting with nuclear RA receptors (RARs) bound to RA response elements (RAREs) near target genes. RA was first implicated in signalling on the basis of its teratogenic effects on limb development. Genetic studies later revealed that endogenous RA promotes forelimb initiation by repressing fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8). Insights into RA function in the limb serve as a paradigm for understanding how RA regulates other developmental processes. In vivo studies have identified RAREs that control repression of Fgf8 during body axis extension or activation of homeobox (Hox) genes and other key regulators during neuronal differentiation and organogenesis.

PMID:
25560970
PMCID:
PMC4636111
DOI:
10.1038/nrm3932
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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