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Hemodial Int. 2015 Jul;19(3):386-401. doi: 10.1111/hdi.12255. Epub 2015 Jan 5.

Effects of frequent hemodialysis on blood pressure: Results from the randomized frequent hemodialysis network trials.

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Renal Research Institute, New York City, New York, USA.
Department of Medicine, London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario, Canada.
Western University, London, Ontario, Canada.
Davis Medical Center, University of California Davis, Sacramento, California, USA.
Humber River Regional Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Division of Nephrology, University Health Network, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Department of Medicine, Toronto General Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Division of Epidemiology, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
Department of Quantitative Health Sciences, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.
Department of Medicine, Hospital of Saint Raphael, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut, USA.
University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, USA.


Hypertension is a common complication of chronic kidney disease and persists among most patients with end-stage renal disease despite the provision of conventional thrice weekly hemodialysis (HD). We analyzed the effects of frequent HD on blood pressure in the randomized controlled Frequent Hemodialysis Network trials. The daily trial randomized 245 patients to 12 months of 6× ("frequent") vs. 3× ("conventional") weekly in-center hemodialysis; the nocturnal trial randomized 87 patients to 12 months of 6× weekly nocturnal HD vs. 3× weekly predominantly home-based hemodialysis. In the daily trial, compared with 3× weekly HD, 2 months of frequent HD lowered predialysis systolic blood pressure by -7.7 mmHg [95% confidence interval (CI): -11.9 to -3.5] and diastolic blood pressure by -3.9 mmHg [95% CI: -6.5 to -1.3]. In the nocturnal trial, compared with 3× weekly HD, 2 months of frequent HD lowered systolic blood pressure by -7.3 mmHg [95% CI: -14.2 to -0.3] and diastolic blood pressure by -4.2 mmHg [95% CI: -8.3 to -0.1]. In both trials, blood pressure treatment effects were sustained until month 12. Frequent HD resulted in significantly fewer antihypertensive medications (daily: -0.36 medications [95% CI: -0.65 to -0.08]; nocturnal: -0.44 mediations [95% CI: -0.89 to -0.03]). In the daily trial, the relative risk per dialysis session for intradialytic hypotension was lower with 6×/week HD but given the higher number of sessions per week, there was a higher relative risk for intradialytic hypotensive requiring saline administration. In summary, frequent HD reduces blood pressure and the number of prescribed antihypertensive medications.


Blood pressure; frequent hemodialysis; hemodialysis; hypertension; nocturnal hemodialysis

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