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J Am Heart Assoc. 2015 Jan 5;4(1):e000993. doi: 10.1161/JAHA.114.000993.

Effects of daily almond consumption on cardiometabolic risk and abdominal adiposity in healthy adults with elevated LDL-cholesterol: a randomized controlled trial.

Author information

1
Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (C.E.B., S.G.W., J.A.F., P.M.K.E.).
2
Department of Nutritional Sciences, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (C.E.B., S.G.W., J.A.F., P.M.K.E.) Department of Biobehavioral Health, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (S.G.W.).
3
Department of Hospitality Management, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA (P.L.B.).

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Evidence consistently shows that almond consumption beneficially affects lipids and lipoproteins. Almonds, however, have not been evaluated in a controlled-feeding setting using a diet design with only a single, calorie-matched food substitution to assess their specific effects on cardiometabolic risk factors.

METHODS AND RESULTS:

In a randomized, 2-period (6 week/period), crossover, controlled-feeding study of 48 individuals with elevated LDL-C (149±3 mg/dL), a cholesterol-lowering diet with almonds (1.5 oz. of almonds/day) was compared to an identical diet with an isocaloric muffin substitution (no almonds/day). Differences in the nutrient profiles of the control (58% CHO, 15% PRO, 26% total fat) and almond (51% CHO, 16% PRO, 32% total fat) diets were due to nutrients inherent to each snack; diets did not differ in saturated fat or cholesterol. The almond diet, compared with the control diet, decreased non-HDL-C (-6.9±2.4 mg/dL; P=0.01) and LDL-C (-5.3±1.9 mg/dL; P=0.01); furthermore, the control diet decreased HDL-C (-1.7±0.6 mg/dL; P<0.01). Almond consumption also reduced abdominal fat (-0.07±0.03 kg; P=0.02) and leg fat (-0.12±0.05 kg; P=0.02), despite no differences in total body weight.

CONCLUSIONS:

Almonds reduced non-HDL-C, LDL-C, and central adiposity, important risk factors for cardiometabolic dysfunction, while maintaining HDL-C concentrations. Therefore, daily consumption of almonds (1.5 oz.), substituted for a high-carbohydrate snack, may be a simple dietary strategy to prevent the onset of cardiometabolic diseases in healthy individuals.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION URL:

www.clinicaltrials.gov; Unique Identifier: NCT01101230.

KEYWORDS:

abdominal fat; cardiometabolic disease; cardiovascular disease risk factors; diet; lipids and lipoproteins

PMID:
25559009
PMCID:
PMC4330049
DOI:
10.1161/JAHA.114.000993
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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