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Anal Chem. 2015 Feb 3;87(3):2007-15. doi: 10.1021/ac504589d. Epub 2015 Jan 16.

Label-free photoelectrochemical immunosensor for neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin based on the use of nanobodies.

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School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southeast University , Nanjing 211189, People's Republic of China.


Acute renal failure (ARF) represents a very important and potentially devastating disorder in clinical nephrology. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is an early biomarker for ARF in a wide range of different disease processes, which is frequently detected in clinical diagnosis. Herein, we present a label-free and sensitive photoelectrochemical (PEC) immunosensor for NGAL by utilizing a biotinylated anti-NGAL Nanobody (Nb) orientedly immobilized to streptavidin-coated cobalt 2,9,16,23-tetraaminophthalocyanine (CoPc)-sensitized TiO2 electrode. The Nb was biotinylated at the C-terminus, which is situated at the opposite site of the antigen binding region. Using highly oriented Nb as receptor molecules, a label-free PEC immunosensor for NGAL was developed by monitoring the changes in the photocurrent signals of the electrode resulting from immunoreaction. Immobilization of Nb to streptavidin-coated CoPc-sensitized TiO2 electrode surface provides high binding capacity to NGAL; thus, it can lead to a high sensitivity. The limit of detection (LOD) of the proposed immunosensor has been significantly lowered to 0.6 pg mL(-1). This proposed immunosensor reveals high specificity to detect NGAL, with acceptable intra-assay precision and excellent stability. In addition, the present work provides a new approach to design Nb-based PEC immunosensor and increases versatility of Nbs.

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