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Ocul Surf. 2015 Jan;13(1):47-81. doi: 10.1016/j.jtos.2014.06.003. Epub 2014 Nov 6.

Potentially pathogenic immune cells and networks in apparently healthy lacrimal glands.

Author information

1
Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine and School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; Department of Ophthalmology, Doheny Eye Institute, Keck School of Medicine and School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California. Electronic address: amirchef@usc.edu.
2
Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine and School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
3
Department of Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical Sciences, Keck School of Medicine and School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California; Department of Cell & Neurobiology, Keck School of Medicine and School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
4
Department of Cell & Neurobiology, Keck School of Medicine and School of Pharmacy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.

Abstract

Lacrimal glands of people over 40 years old frequently contain lymphocytic infiltrates. Relationships between histopathological presentation and physiological dysfunction are not straightforward. Data from rabbit studies have suggested that at least two immune cell networks form in healthy lacrimal glands, one responding to environmental dryness, the other to high temperatures. New findings indicate that mRNAs for several chemokines and cytokines are expressed primarily in epithelial cells; certain others are expressed in both epithelial cells and immune cells. Transcript abundances vary substantially across glands from animals that have experienced the same conditions, allowing for correlation analyses, which detect clusters that map to various cell types and to networks of coordinately functioning cells. A core network--expressing mRNAs including IL-1α, IL-6, IL-17A, and IL-10--expands adaptively with exposure to dryness, suppressing IFN-γ, but potentially causing physiological dysfunction. High temperature elicits concurrent increases of mRNAs for prolactin (PRL), CCL21, and IL-18. PRL is associated with crosstalk to IFN-γ, BAFF, and IL-4. The core network reacts to the resulting PRL-BAFF-IL-4 network, creating a profile reminiscent of Sjögren's disease. In a warmer, moderately dry setting, PRL-associated increases of IFN-γ are associated with suppression of IL-10 and augmentations of IL-1α and IL-17, creating a profile reminiscent of severe chronic inflammation.

KEYWORDS:

Sjögren's disease(∗); aging; autoimmunity; chronic inflammation; dacryoadenitis; dry eye; prolactin

PMID:
25557346
PMCID:
PMC4284438
DOI:
10.1016/j.jtos.2014.06.003
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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