Send to

Choose Destination
Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2015 Dec;25(6):e638-45. doi: 10.1111/sms.12397. Epub 2014 Dec 30.

Association of previous injury and speed with running style and stride-to-stride fluctuations.

Author information

Sports Medicine Research Laboratory, Public Research Centre for Health, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.
NUTRIM School for Nutrition, Toxicology and Metabolism, Maastricht University, Maastricht, The Netherlands.
Sports Clinic, Centre Hospitalier de Luxembourg, Luxembourg, Luxembourg.


Running-related injuries remain problematic among recreational runners. We evaluated the association between having sustained a recent running-related injury and speed, and the strike index (a measure of footstrike pattern, SI) and spatiotemporal parameters of running. Forty-four previously injured and 46 previously uninjured runners underwent treadmill running at 80%, 90%, 100%, 110%, and 120% of their preferred running speed. Participants wore a pressure insole device to measure SI, temporal parameters, and stride length (S(length)) and stride frequency (S(frequency)) over 2-min intervals. Coefficient of variation and detrended fluctuation analysis provided information on stride-to-stride variability and correlative patterns. Linear mixed models were used to compare differences between groups and changes with speed. Previously injured runners displayed significantly higher stride-to-stride correlations of SI than controls (P = 0.046). As speed increased, SI, contact time (T(contact)), stride time (T(stride)), and duty factor (DF) decreased (P < 0.001), whereas flight time (T(flight)), S(length), and S(frequency) increased (P < 0.001). Stride-to-stride variability decreased significantly for SI, T(contact), T(flight), and DF (P ≤ 0.005), as did correlative patterns for T(contact), T(stride), DF, S(length), and S(frequency) (P ≤ 0.044). Previous running-related injury was associated with less stride-to-stride randomness of footstrike pattern. Overall, runners became more pronounced rearfoot strikers as running speed increased.


Strike index; detrended fluctuation analysis; running biomechanics; running-related injury

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center