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J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2014;7(4):281-94. doi: 10.3233/PRM-140299.

Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

Author information

1
Department of Endocrinology, Children's Hospital and Research Center Oakland, Oakland, CA, USA.
2
Center for Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Metabolism, Children's Hospital Los Angeles, CA, USA Department of Pediatrics, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, USA.

Abstract

Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

KEYWORDS:

Endocrinopathies; brain tumors; early effects; hypothalamus; late effects; pituitary

PMID:
25547881
DOI:
10.3233/PRM-140299
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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