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Prog Orthod. 2014 Dec 30;15:70. doi: 10.1186/s40510-014-0070-9.

A 15-month evaluation of bond failures of orthodontic brackets bonded with direct versus indirect bonding technique: a clinical trial.

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Unit of Orthodontics and Paediatric Dentistry, Department of Clinical, Diagnostic and Paediatric Sciences, School of Dentistry, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy.



The purpose of this clinical longitudinal study was to investigate the effectiveness of indirect bonding technique evaluating the number of bond failures which occurred during treatment.


Fifty-two patients were selected and divided into two groups: group A (33 patients) bonded with the direct technique and group B (19 patients) bonded with the indirect technique. The number and date of bracket failure were recorded for over 15 months. Moreover, also the effect of crowding level on bracket failures was calculated. Statistical analysis was performed by means of t-test, Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and chi-squared test.


No statistically significant differences were found in the total bond failure rate between direct and indirect techniques, also when comparing the upper and lower arches. The only significant difference was found comparing the posterior segment of the lower arches, in which a higher percentage of detachments were recorded in group B, bonded with the indirect technique. Moreover, no significant differences between direct and indirect bonding were found when evaluating crowding level.


Orthodontic practitioners can safely use the indirect bonding technique, even in patients with severe crowding, because it does not influence the adhesive quality and the bracket survival rate.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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