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Drug Alcohol Rev. 2015 Jul;34(4):412-7. doi: 10.1111/dar.12228. Epub 2014 Dec 29.

Evolving epidemiology of injecting drug use-associated infective endocarditis: A regional centre experience.

Author information

1
MonashHEART, Monash Health, Melbourne, Australia.
2
Department of Medicine, St Vincent's Hospital Melbourne, Melbourne, Australia.
3
Biostatistics Unit, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia.
4
School of Medicine, Deakin University, Geelong, Australia.
5
The Geelong Hospital, Barwon Health, Geelong, Australia.

Abstract

INTRODUCTION AND AIMS:

Injecting drug use (IDU) is a major risk factor for infective endocarditis (IE). An understanding of the epidemiology of IE and IDU is vital for delivery of health care for this disease. Our aim was to examine the rates of IDU-associated IE (IDU-IE) in a single centre over the last 12 years.

DESIGN AND METHODS:

Retrospective analysis of two cohorts of consecutive patients (n = 226) admitted with IE from 2002 to 2013. Numbers of cases and rates of IE were compared between two cohorts (2002-2006 and 2009-2013). Rate ratios were calculated using Poisson distributions. Poisson regression was used to examine relationship over time.

RESULTS:

One hundred thirty cases of endocarditis were seen in the first observation period (6 IDU-IE) and 96 in the second observation period (15 IDU-IE). The estimated incidence rate of IE had fallen from 10.1 to 6.45 per 100, 000 person-years [rate ratio 0.64, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.48, 0.85]. In contrast, the estimated incidence rate of IDU-E has risen from 0.48 to 0.79 per 100, 000 person-years (rate ratio 1.65, 95% CI 0.59, 4.57). Incidence rate regression suggests that the number of IDU-IE cases is expected to increase by a factor of 1.25 (95%CI 1.09-1.44) for each increase of 1 year.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS:

Over the last decade, there has been a decrease in incidence rate and total number of cases of IE but a rise in rate and number of cases of IDU-IE. This may indicate increasing IDU or increased rates of endocarditis in intravenous drug users in this region. This finding may inform health-care planning in the area.

KEYWORDS:

Staphylococcus aureus; endocarditis; heart valve; intravenous substance abuse; needle-exchange programs

PMID:
25545735
DOI:
10.1111/dar.12228
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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