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Eval Program Plann. 2015 Apr;49:50-62. doi: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2014.11.004. Epub 2014 Nov 22.

Implementation of an enhanced probation program: evaluating process and preliminary outcomes.

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Morehead State University, Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology, United States. Electronic address:
Morehead State University, Sociology, Social Work, and Criminology, United States.
Kentucky Administrative Office of the Courts, United States.


Supervision, Monitoring, Accountability, Responsibility, and Treatment (SMART) is Kentucky's enhanced probation pilot program modeled after Hawaii's Opportunity Probation with Enforcement (HOPE). SMART is proposed to decrease substance use, new violations, and incarceration-related costs for high-risk probationers by increasing and randomizing drug testing, intensifying supervision, and creating linkages with needed resources (i.e., mental health and substance use). SMART adopts a holistic approach to rehabilitation by addressing mental health and substance abuse needs as well as life skills for fostering deterrence of criminal behavior vs. punitive action only. A mixed methods evaluation was implemented to assess program implementation and effectiveness. Qualitative interviews with key stakeholders (i.e., administration, judges, attorneys, and law enforcement/corrections) suggested successful implementation and collaboration to facilitate the pilot program. Quantitative analyses of secondary Kentucky Offender Management System (KOMS) data (grant Year 1: 07/01/2012-06/30/2013) also suggested program effectiveness. Specifically, SMART probationers showed significantly fewer: violations of probation (1.2 vs. 2.3), positive drug screens (8.6% vs. 29.4%), and days incarcerated (32.5 vs. 118.1) than comparison probationers. Kentucky's SMART enhanced probation shows preliminary success in reducing violations, substance use, and incarceration. Implications for practice and policy will be discussed.


Collaboration; Community corrections; Deterrence; Enhanced probation; Evaluation outcomes; High-risk probationers; Holistic approach; Interpersonal communication; Rehabilitation

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