Format

Send to

Choose Destination
Arch Toxicol. 2016 Mar;90(3):589-601. doi: 10.1007/s00204-014-1446-9. Epub 2014 Dec 28.

Mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate accumulation disturbs energy metabolism of fat cells.

Author information

1
Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli, 350, Taiwan.
2
Division of Environmental Health and Occupational Medicine, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan, Miaoli, 350, Taiwan. tctsou@nhri.org.tw.

Abstract

Phthalates are lipophilic and tend to accumulate in adipose tissue, an important regulator of energy balance and glucose homeostasis. The study aimed to determine whether cellular phthalate accumulation influenced fat cell energy metabolism. Following a 3-day treatment with adipogenesis-inducing medium and a 2-day treatment with adipogenesis-maintaining medium, 3T3-L1 cells differentiated into adipocytes in the presence of a phthalate at a clinically relevant concentration (30-300 μM) for another 6 days. Two phthalates, di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate and di-n-butylphthalate, and their metabolites, mono(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (MEHP) and mono-n-butylphthalate, were used here. The phthalate treatments caused no marked effect on cytotoxicity and adipogenesis. Only the MEHP-treated adipocytes were found having smaller lipid droplets; MEHP accumulated in cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner. The MEHP-treated adipocytes exhibited significant increases in lipolysis and glucose uptake; quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis revealed correlated changes in expression of marker genes involved in adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and glucose uptake. Analysis of oxygen consumption rate (a mitochondrial respiration indicator) and extracellular acidification rate (a glycolysis indicator) indicated a higher energy metabolism in the adipocytes. qPCR analysis of critical genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis and/or energy metabolism showed that expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α, sirtuin 3, and protein kinase A were significantly enhanced in the MEHP-treated adipocytes. In vitro evidence of MEHP impacts on lipolysis, glucose uptake/glycolysis, and mitochondrial respiration/biogenesis demonstrates that MEHP accumulation disturbs energy metabolism of fat cells.

KEYWORDS:

Adipocytes; Glucose uptake; Lipolysis; MEHP; Mitochondria; Phthalates

PMID:
25543134
DOI:
10.1007/s00204-014-1446-9
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center