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Am J Hypertens. 2015 Jul;28(7):852-7. doi: 10.1093/ajh/hpu244. Epub 2014 Dec 26.

Aldosterone Levels, Aortic Stiffness, and Wave Reflection in Essential Hypertensive Patients.

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Hypertension Unit, 1st Cardiology Clinic, Athens University, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece;
Hypertension Unit, 1st Cardiology Clinic, Athens University, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece;
1st Cardiology Clinic, Onassis Cardiosurgery Center, Athens, Greece;
Nephrology Department, Hippokration Hospital, Athens, Greece.



The aim of the present study was to evaluate the grade of arterial stiffening, in relation to aldosterone (ALDO) and plasma renin activity (PRA) levels, in essential never-treated hypertensive patients.


We studied 1,330 consecutive patients without clinical and/or laboratory findings of primary or secondary aldosteronism. Arterial stiffness indices Aix75 and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWVc-f) were measured and a 24-hour urine collection for ALDO was carried out to classify patients with low ALDO <12 mcg/24 hours and high ALDO >12 but <24 mcg/24 hours. Patients were divided according to PRA (high PRA > 1ng/ml/hour, low PRA < 1ng/ml/hour) and ALDO levels (high ALDO > 12 but <24 mcg/24 hours, low ALDO < 12 mcg/24 hours) in four groups. Also patients were grouped according to serum ALDO quartiles, 24-hour urine ALDO quartiles, PRA quartiles, and serum ALDO/PRA quartiles.


Patients were classified in 4 groups: group I (high ALDO and low PRA), group II (high ALDO and high PRA), group III (low ALDO and low PRA), and finally group IV (low ALDO and high PRA). PWVc-f and AoAIx75 were significantly higher in group I followed by group II, III, and IV (P < 0.001). Comparison of arterial stiffness indices according to PRA quartiles and PWVc-f and AoAIx75 showed significantly higher in the 1st quartile compared to 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, respectively (P < 0.001). PWVc-f and AoAIx75 were also compared among the four quartiles of aldosterone-renin ratio and they were significantly higher (P < 0.001) in the 4th quartile followed by the 3rd, 2nd, and 1st, respectively.


Arterial stiffness indices are higher among essential hypertensive patients with high normal serum and urine ALDO levels, pointing to a causal relationship between renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation and large artery properties.


aldosterone; arterial stiffness; blood pressure; essential hypertension; hypertension; plasma renin activity.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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