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Int J Biochem Cell Biol. 2015 Feb;59:167-81. doi: 10.1016/j.biocel.2014.12.008. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

Emerging concepts in bioenergetics and cancer research: metabolic flexibility, coupling, symbiosis, switch, oxidative tumors, metabolic remodeling, signaling and bioenergetic therapy.

Author information

1
Laboratory "MRGM" Rare Diseases: Genetics and Metabolism, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France.
2
Laboratory "MRGM" Rare Diseases: Genetics and Metabolism, University of Bordeaux, Bordeaux, France. Electronic address: rossig@u-bordeaux2.fr.

Abstract

The field of energy metabolism dramatically progressed in the last decade, owing to a large number of cancer studies, as well as fundamental investigations on related transcriptional networks and cellular interactions with the microenvironment. The concept of metabolic flexibility was clarified in studies showing the ability of cancer cells to remodel the biochemical pathways of energy transduction and linked anabolism in response to glucose, glutamine or oxygen deprivation. A clearer understanding of the large-scale bioenergetic impact of C-MYC, MYCN, KRAS and P53 was obtained, along with its modification during the course of tumor development. The metabolic dialog between different types of cancer cells, but also with the stroma, also complexified the understanding of bioenergetics and raised the concepts of metabolic symbiosis and reverse Warburg effect. Signaling studies revealed the role of respiratory chain-derived reactive oxygen species for metabolic remodeling and metastasis development. The discovery of oxidative tumors in human and mice models related to chemoresistance also changed the prevalent view of dysfunctional mitochondria in cancer cells. Likewise, the influence of energy metabolism-derived oncometabolites emerged as a new means of tumor genetic regulation. The knowledge obtained on the multi-site regulation of energy metabolism in tumors was translated to cancer preclinical studies, supported by genetic proof of concept studies targeting LDHA, HK2, PGAM1, or ACLY. Here, we review those different facets of metabolic remodeling in cancer, from its diversity in physiology and pathology, to the search of the genetic determinants, the microenvironmental regulators and pharmacological modulators.

KEYWORDS:

Cancer; Metabolic flexibility; Mitochondria; Oncobioenergetics; Oxidative phosphorylation

PMID:
25542180
DOI:
10.1016/j.biocel.2014.12.008
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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