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J Virol. 2015 Mar;89(6):2990-4. doi: 10.1128/JVI.03146-14. Epub 2014 Dec 24.

Influenza virus reservoirs and intermediate hosts: dogs, horses, and new possibilities for influenza virus exposure of humans.

Author information

1
Baker Institute for Animal Health, College of Veterinary Medicine, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, USA crp3@cornell.edu.
2
Medical Research Council-University of Glasgow Centre for Virus Research, Institute of Infection, Inflammation and Immunity, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, United Kingdom.
3
Marie Bashir Institute for Infectious Diseases and Biosecurity, Charles Perkins Centre, School of Biological Sciences and Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.

Abstract

Influenza A virus (IAV) infections in hosts outside the main aquatic bird reservoirs occur periodically. Although most such cross-species transmission events result in limited onward transmission in the new host, sustained influenza outbreaks have occurred in poultry and in a number of mammalian species, including humans, pigs, horses, seals, and mink. Recently, two distinct strains of IAV have emerged in domestic dogs, with each circulating widely for several years. Here, we briefly outline what is known about the role of intermediate hosts in influenza emergence, summarize our knowledge of the new canine influenza viruses (CIVs) and how they provide key new information on the process of host adaptation, and assess the risk these viruses pose to human populations.

PMID:
25540375
PMCID:
PMC4337525
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.03146-14
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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