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J Res Med Sci. 2014 Oct;19(10):933-8.

The effect of sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) powder on insulin resistance, malondialdehyde, high sensitive C-reactive protein and paraoxonase 1 activity in type 2 diabetic patients.

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Department of Nutrition, School of Health, Research Institute for Islamic and Complementary Medicine, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Endocrinology, Iranian Diabetes Association, Tehran, Iran.
Department of Nutrition, Razi Psychiatric Hospital, Tehran, Iran.



Sumac (Rhus coriaria L.) has been used in traditional treatment of some diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of sumac (R. coriaria L.) powder on insulin resistance (IR), malondialdehyde (MDA), high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and paraoxonase 1 (PON1) activity in type 2 diabetic patients.


A double-blind randomized placebo controlled trial on 41 type 2 diabetic volunteers was conducted. Participants randomly assigned into 3 g per day sumac powder (n = 22) or placebo (n = 19) groups for 3 months. IR was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment of IR (HOMA-IR), which including measurement of insulin by immunoassay method and measurement of glucose by enzymatic method. MDA and PON1 activity were measured colorimetrically, hs-CRP turbidimetrically.


There were a significant increase in PON1 activity (from 84.72 ± 30.59 to 92.91 ± 32.63) and significant decrease in insulin (from 7.09 ± 4.28 to 5.32 ± 3.22), HOMA-IR (from 2.56 ± 1.58 to 1.67 ± 0.94), MDA (from 2.71 ± 0.73 to 1.97 ± 0.49), and also hs-CRP (from 18.49 ± 16.96 to 15.89 ± 16.70) in the sumac group at the end of study compared with initial values (P < 0.05). Furthermore, there were significant differences in MDA and PON1 between the two groups at the end of the study (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the mean of differences of insulin, HOMA-IR, MDA, hs-CRP and PON1 activity between groups were significant (P < 0.05).


We concluded that daily intake of 3 g sumac for 3 months may be beneficial for diabetic patients to make them less susceptible to cardiovascular disease.


High sensitive C-reactive protein; insulin resistance; malondialdehyde; paraoxonase 1; sumac (Rhus coriaria L.); type 2 diabetes


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