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Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2015 Mar;24(3):631-4. doi: 10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1145. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

A pooled analysis of cigarette smoking and risk of multiple myeloma from the international multiple myeloma consortium.

Author information

1
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland. andreotg@mail.nih.gov.
2
Channing Division of Network Medicine, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts.
3
Department of Preventive Medicine, Keck School of Medicine and Norris Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California.
4
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
5
Department of Health Studies, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois.
6
Unit of Infections and Cancer, Catalan Institute of Oncology, IDIBELL, University of Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.
7
Department of Cancer Prevention and Control, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, New York.
8
Division of Genetic Epidemiology, University of Utah School of Medicine, Salt Lake City, Utah.
9
Cancer Control Research, BC Cancer Agency, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. School of Population and Public Health, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
10
Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada. Community Health and Epidemiology, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
11
Canadian Centre for Health and Safety in Agriculture, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada.
12
Public Health Ontario, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Samuel Lunenfeld Research Institute, Mount Sinai Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
13
The Tisch Cancer Institute and Institute for Translational Epidemiology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, New York.
14
Department of Public Health, Public Health University College, Dublin, Ireland.
15
City of Hope National Medical Center, Duarte, California.
16
International Agency for Research on Cancer, Lyon, France.
17
Center for Study and Prevention of Cancer, Unit of Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology, Florence, Italy.
18
Department of Public Health, Clinical and Molecular Medicine, Occupational Health Section, University of Cagliari, Monserrato, Italy.
19
Division of Clinical Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Centre, Heidelberg, Germany.
20
German Cancer Center, Division of Cancer Epidemiology, Heidelberg, Germany.
21
Registry of Hematological Malignancies of Côte d'Or, EA4184, University of Burgundy, Dijon, France.
22
Department of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute, Brno, Czech Republic.
23
Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.
24
Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa.
25
Public Health Sciences Division, Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington.
26
Information Management Services, Inc., Silver Spring, Maryland.
27
Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, NIH, Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, Maryland.

Abstract

BACKGROUND:

Past investigations of cigarette smoking and multiple myeloma have been underpowered to detect moderate associations, particularly within subgroups. To clarify this association, we conducted a pooled analysis of nine case-control studies in the International Multiple Myeloma Consortium, with individual-level questionnaire data on cigarette smoking history and other covariates.

METHODS:

Using a pooled population of 2,670 cases and 11,913 controls, we computed odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoking to multiple myeloma risk using unconditional logistic regression adjusting for gender, age group, race, education, body mass index, alcohol consumption, and study center.

RESULTS:

Neither ever smokers (OR, 0.95; 95% CI, 0.87-1.05), current smokers (OR, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.73-0.93), nor former smokers (OR, 1.03; 95% CI, 0.92-1.14) had increased risks of multiple myeloma compared with never smokers. Analyses of smoking frequency, pack-years, and duration did not reveal significant or consistent patterns, and there was no significant effect modification by subgroups.

CONCLUSION:

Findings from this large pooled analysis do not support the hypothesis of cigarette smoking as a causal factor for multiple myeloma.

IMPACT:

Cigarette smoking is one of the most important risk factors for cancer, but the association with multiple myeloma was inconclusive. This study had excellent power to detect modest associations, and had individual-level data to evaluate confounding and effect modification by potentially important factors that were not evaluated in previous studies. Our findings confirm that smoking is not a risk factor for multiple myeloma. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev; 24(3); 631-4. ©2014 AACR.

PMID:
25538226
PMCID:
PMC4355157
DOI:
10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-14-1145
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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