Send to

Choose Destination
Toxicol Ind Health. 2016 Sep;32(9):1537-49. doi: 10.1177/0748233714561286. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Melatonin controlled apoptosis and protected the testes and sperm quality against bisphenol A-induced oxidative toxicity.

Author information

Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
Department of Biology, Faculty of Education, Mosul University, Mosul, Iraq.


Epidemiological reports have indicated a correlation between the increasing bisphenol A (BPA) levels in the environment and the incidence of male infertility. In this study, the protective effects of melatonin on BPA-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis were investigated in the rat testes and epididymal sperm. Melatonin (10 mg/kg body weight (bw)) was injected concurrently with BPA (50 mg/kg bw) for 3 and 6 weeks. The administration of BPA significantly increased oxidative stress in the testes and epididymal sperm. This was associated with a decrease in the serum testosterone level as well as sperm quality, chromatin condensation/de-condensation level, and the percentage of haploid germ cells in the semen. BPA administration caused a significant increase in apoptosis accompanied by a decrease in the expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 in the testes and epididymal sperm. The concurrent administration of melatonin decreased oxidative stress by modulating the levels of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase as well as the malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide concentrations in the testes and sperm. Melatonin sustained Bcl-2 expression and controlled apoptosis. Furthermore, melatonin maintained the testosterone levels, ameliorated histopathological changes, increased the percentages of seminal haploid germ cells, and protected sperm chromatin condensation process, indicating appropriate spermatogenesis with production of functional sperm. In conclusion, melatonin protected against BPA-induced apoptosis by controlling Bcl-2 expression and ameliorating oxidative stress in the testes and sperm. Thus, melatonin is a promising pharmacological agent for preventing the potential reproductive toxicity of BPA following occupational or environmental exposures.


Pollutants; antioxidants; apoptosis; endocrine disrupting chemical; oxidative stress; reproduction; testosterone

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Atypon
Loading ...
Support Center