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Oncotarget. 2014 Dec 30;5(24):12472-508.

Classification of current anticancer immunotherapies.

Author information

1
Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France.
2
Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
3
Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Faculté de Medicine, Université Paris Sud/Paris XI, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France.
4
Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Faculté de Medicine, Université Paris Sud/Paris XI, Le Kremlin-Bicêtre, France. Sotio a.c., Prague, Czech Republic.
5
Pole d'innovation thérapeutique en oncologie, Institut de Recherches Internationales Servier, Suresnes, France.
6
Cell Death Research and Therapy (CDRT) Laboratory, Dept. of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
7
The Shraga Segal Dept. of Microbiology, Immunology and Genetics, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva, Israel.
8
Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Group of Immune receptors of the Innate and Adaptive System, Institut d'Investigacions Biomédiques August Pi i Sunyer (IDIBAPS), Barcelona, Spain.
9
INSERM, U1102, Saint Herblain, France. Institut de Cancérologie de l'Ouest, Saint Herblain, France.
10
Translational Immunology Division, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
11
Equipe 11, Centre Léon Bérard (CLR), Lyon, France. Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Lyon (CRCL), Lyon, France.
12
Dept. of Hematology, Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome, Italy.
13
INSERM, U1160, Paris, France. Groupe Hospitalier Saint Louis-Lariboisière - F. Vidal, Paris, France.
14
Unit of Immunotherapy of Human Tumors, Dept. of Experimental Oncology and Molecular Medicine, Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milano, Italy.
15
Molecular Biotechnology Center, Dept. of Molecular Biotechnology and Health Sciences, University of Torino, Torino, Italy.
16
Cancer Immunology, Inflammation and Tolerance Program, Georgia Regents University Cancer Center, Augusta, GA, USA.
17
MRC Human Immunology Unit, Weatherall Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.
18
Institute of Cancer & Genetics, School of Medicine, Cardiff University, Cardiff, UK. Velindre Cancer Centre, Cardiff, UK.
19
Knight Cancer Institute, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, USA.
20
Sect. of Hematology and Immunobiology, Yale Cancer Center, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA.
21
Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
22
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY, USA.
23
INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Université Pierre et Marie Curie/Paris VI, Paris, France. Equipe 13, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
24
Sotio a.c., Prague, Czech Republic. Dept. of Immunology, 2nd Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Motol, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.
25
Dept. of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
26
INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Université Pierre et Marie Curie/Paris VI, Paris, France. Laboratory of Integrative Cancer Immunology, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France.
27
INSERM, UMR866, Dijon, France. Centre Georges François Leclerc, Dijon, France. Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France.
28
Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA. Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center, Georgetown University, Washington, DC, USA.
29
Dept. of Microbiology and Immunology, Sylvester Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of Miami, Miller School of Medicine, Miami, FL, USA.
30
Sect. of Hematology/Oncology, Immunology, Tisch Cancer Institute, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NY, USA.
31
Glaxo Smith Kline, Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium, Collegeville, PA, USA.
32
Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. INSERM, U1016, Paris, France. CNRS, UMR8104, Paris, France. Hôpital Cochin, AP-HP, Paris, France.
33
National Center for Tumor Diseases, University Medical Center Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.
34
Dept. of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. Dept. of Immunology and Infectious Diseases and Microbiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
35
Dept. of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
36
Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
37
Dept. of Oncology, Karolinska Institute Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
38
University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute Laboratory, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
39
National Center for Cancer Care and Research, Hamad Medical Corporation, Doha, Qatar.
40
Academic Unit of Inflammation and Tumour Targeting, Dept. of Oncology, University of Sheffield Medical School, Sheffield, UK.
41
INSERM, UMR1043, Toulouse, France. CNRS, UMR5282, Toulouse, France. Laboratoire d'Immunologie, CHU Toulouse, Université Toulouse II, Toulouse, France.
42
Dept. of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
43
Unit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Institute, Rozzano, Italy.
44
Dept. of Biochemistry, University of Lausanne, Epalinges, Switzerland.
45
Unit of Clinical and Experimental Immunology, Humanitas Clinical and Research Institute, Rozzano, Italy. Dept. of Medical Biotechnologies and Translational Medicine, University of Milan, Rozzano, Italy.
46
Dept. of Immunology, Centro de Investigación Médica Aplicada (CIMA), Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. Dept. of Oncology, Clínica Universidad de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain.
47
ISA Therapeutics, Leiden, The Netherlands. Dept. of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
48
Research Dept. of Surgical Oncology, The University of Texas, MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA.
49
Istituto Giannina Gaslini, Genova, Italy.
50
Center for Immunotherapy, Roswell Park Cancer Institute, Buffalo, NY, USA.
51
Dept. of Neurological Surgery, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA.
52
The Jackson Laboratory for Genomics Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA.
53
Div. of Hematology/Oncology, Northwestern University, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, USA.
54
The James Buchanan Brady Urological Institute, The Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions, Baltimore, MD, USA.
55
Lankenau Institute for Medical Research, Wynnewood, PA, USA. Dept. of Pathology, Anatomy and Cell Biology, Sidney Kimmel Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Cell Biology and Signaling Program, Kimmel Cancer Center, Thomas Jefferson University, Philadelphia, PA, USA.
56
Laboratorio de Inmunopatología, Instituto de Biología y Medicina Experimental (IBYME), Buenos Aires, Argentina.
57
National Cancer Institute (NCI), National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA.
58
Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY, USA.
59
Dept. of Pathology, The Cancer Research Center, The University of Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA.
60
Institute of Medical Immunology, Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Halle, Germany.
61
Dept. of Immuno-GeneTherapy, Mie University Graduate School of Medicine, Tsu, Japan.
62
Instituto de Medicina Molecular, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.
63
Immunology in Cancer and Infection Laboratory, QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston, Queensland, Australia. School of Medicine, University of Queensland, Herston, Queensland, Australia.
64
Dept. of Oncology, University of Lausanne, Lausanne, Switzerland. Ludwig Cancer Research Center, Lausanne, Switzerland.
65
Dept. of Immunology, University of Connecticut School of Medicine, Farmington, CT, USA. Carole and Ray Neag Comprehensive Cancer Center, Farmington, CT, USA.
66
Laboratory of Transplantation Immunology, Dept. of Pathology and Microbiology, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE, USA.
67
Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. INSERM, U970, Paris, France. Paris-Cardiovascular Research Center (PARCC), Paris, France. Service d'Immunologie Biologique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), AP-HP, Paris, France.
68
Dept. of Clinical Oncology, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, The Netherlands.
69
Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research, Brussels, Belgium. de Duve Institute, Brussels, Belgium. Université Catholique de Louvain, Brussels, Belgium.
70
Dept. of Molecular Medicine and Immunology, Mayo Clinic College of Medicine, Rochester, MN, USA.
71
Institute of Medical Microbiology, Immunology and Hygiene, Technical University Munich, Munich, Germany.
72
Donald A. Adam Comprehensive Melanoma Research Center, Moffitt Cancer Center, Tampa, FL, USA.
73
University of Pittsburgh Cancer Institute, Hillman Cancer Center, Pittsburgh, PA, USA. University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh, PA, USA.
74
Dept. of Medicine and Ludwig Center, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), New York, NY, USA. Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, NY, USA.
75
Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. INSERM, U1015, Villejuif, France. Centre d'Investigation Clinique Biothérapie 507 (CICBT507), Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France.
76
University of Michigan, School of Medicine, Ann Arbor, MI, USA.
77
Equipe 11 labellisée pas la Ligue Nationale contre le Cancer, Centre de Recherche des Cordeliers, Paris, France. INSERM, U1138, Paris, France. Université Paris Descartes/Paris V, Sorbonne Paris Cité, Paris, France. Metabolomics and Cell Biology Platforms, Gustave Roussy Cancer Campus, Villejuif, France. Pôle de Biologie, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou (HEGP), AP-HP, Paris, France.

Abstract

During the past decades, anticancer immunotherapy has evolved from a promising therapeutic option to a robust clinical reality. Many immunotherapeutic regimens are now approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency for use in cancer patients, and many others are being investigated as standalone therapeutic interventions or combined with conventional treatments in clinical studies. Immunotherapies may be subdivided into "passive" and "active" based on their ability to engage the host immune system against cancer. Since the anticancer activity of most passive immunotherapeutics (including tumor-targeting monoclonal antibodies) also relies on the host immune system, this classification does not properly reflect the complexity of the drug-host-tumor interaction. Alternatively, anticancer immunotherapeutics can be classified according to their antigen specificity. While some immunotherapies specifically target one (or a few) defined tumor-associated antigen(s), others operate in a relatively non-specific manner and boost natural or therapy-elicited anticancer immune responses of unknown and often broad specificity. Here, we propose a critical, integrated classification of anticancer immunotherapies and discuss the clinical relevance of these approaches.

PMID:
25537519
PMCID:
PMC4350348
DOI:
10.18632/oncotarget.2998
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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