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Physiol Res. 2015;64(3):419-26. Epub 2014 Dec 22.

Relation between cigarette smoking and sarcopenia: meta-analysis.

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Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic.


Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for many diseases. It could be associated with sarcopenia. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether smoking is an isolated risk factor for sarcopenia. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Science Direct for articles addressing the relationship between cigarette smoking and sarcopenia. A total of 12 studies containing information on 22,515 participants were included in this meta-analysis. Odds ratio (OR) was calculated for each study group and for all studies together. An OR was also calculated separately for each sex. We used a fixed-effect model in overall estimation and in males, because results of small studies were significantly different from the results of large studies in those cases and in females where the estimation showed only moderate heterogeneity we used a random-effect model. According to proposes of the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews. The resulting OR in the fixed-effect model was 1.12 (95 % CI 1.03-1.21), OR for each sex was in the fixed-effect model 1.20 (95 % CI 1.06-1.35) in males and in the random-effect model 1.21 (95 % CI 0.92-1.59) in females. The results of this meta-analysis indicate that cigarette smoking as an isolated factor may contribute to the development of sarcopenia. However, the results of the individual studies were largely inconsistent due to different approaches of measuring the main variables which affected the results.

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