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Endocr Res. 2015;40(3):160-5. doi: 10.3109/07435800.2014.982326. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Hypovitaminosis D in type 2 diabetes: relation with features of the metabolic syndrome and glycemic control.

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Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital de la Santa Creu i Sant Pau , Barcelona , Spain .



To assess the association of hypovitaminosis D with clinical and biochemical characteristics of type 2 diabetic patients and to determine the effect of glycemic control optimization on 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations.


Cross-sectional study of 63 patients with type 2 diabetes (mean age 60 ± 9.8 years, 69.8% men). Twenty of the 63 patients were also studied before and after glycemic control optimization.


Mean 25(OH)D concentrations were 63.64 ± 25.51 nmol/L and 74.6% of patients had hypovitaminosis D. Compared with patients with vitamin D sufficiency, patients with hypovitaminosis D had higher prevalence of overweight or obesity (72.3% versus 37.5%; p = 0.012) and higher VLDL cholesterol (VLDL-c) (0.71 (0.24-3.59) versus 0.45 (0.13-1.6) mmol/L; p = 0.011) and C-reactive protein (3.28 (0.36-17.69) versus 1.87 (0.18-17.47) mg/L; p = 0.033) concentrations. The composition of HDL particles also differed in both groups, with higher relative content of triglycerides and lower of cholesterol in patients with hypovitaminosis D. After adjustment for age, seasonality and BMI, differences remained significant for VLDL-c and triglyceride content of HDL. No differences were found regarding other diabetes characteristics. Improvement of glycemic control (HbA1c 9.4 (7.6-14.8) versus 7.3 (6.2-8.7)%; p = 0.000) was accompanied by a decrease in 25(OH)D concentrations (72.7 ± 33.3 to 59.0 ± 21.0 nmol/L; p = 0.035). Correlation analysis revealed that changes in 25(OH)D concentrations were negatively associated to changes in HbA1c (r - 0.482; p = 0.032).


Hypovitaminosis D is associated with features of the metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetes and improvement of glycemic control decreases 25(OH)D concentrations.


Atherogenic dyslipidemia; glucose; vitamin D

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