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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jan 6;112(1):76-81. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1421127112. Epub 2014 Dec 22.

Rare allele of a previously unidentified histone H4 acetyltransferase enhances grain weight, yield, and plant biomass in rice.

Author information

1
Bioscience and Biotechnology Center, jacobsen@ucla.edu songxj@ibcas.ac.cn ashi@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp.
2
Bioscience and Biotechnology Center.
3
Faculty of Biotechnology, Fukui Prefectural University, 4-1-1 Eiheiji-Town, Fukui 910-1195, Japan; Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8472, Japan;
4
Faculty of Biotechnology, Fukui Prefectural University, 4-1-1 Eiheiji-Town, Fukui 910-1195, Japan;
5
Graduate School of Science, and.
6
Graduate School of Science, and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) Higashiyama Live-Holonics Project and.
7
Graduate School of Science, and Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) Exploratory Research for Advanced Technology (ERATO) Higashiyama Live-Holonics Project and Institute of Transformative Bio-Molecules, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi, 464-8602, Japan;
8
Food Resources Education and Research Center, Kobe University, Kasai, Hyogo 675-2103, Japan;
9
Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601, Japan;
10
Agrogenomics Research Center, National Institute of Agrobiological Sciences, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8634, Japan;
11
RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, Tsurumi, Yokohama 230-0045, Japan; and.
12
Molecular Cell and Developmental Biology and Howard Hughes Medical Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1606 jacobsen@ucla.edu songxj@ibcas.ac.cn ashi@agr.nagoya-u.ac.jp.

Abstract

Grain weight is an important crop yield component; however, its underlying regulatory mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, we identify a grain-weight quantitative trait locus (QTL) encoding a new-type GNAT-like protein that harbors intrinsic histone acetyltransferase activity (OsglHAT1). Our genetic and molecular evidences pinpointed the QTL-OsglHAT1's allelic variations to a 1.2-kb region upstream of the gene body, which is consistent with its function as a positive regulator of the traits. Elevated OsglHAT1 expression enhances grain weight and yield by enlarging spikelet hulls via increasing cell number and accelerating grain filling, and increases global acetylation levels of histone H4. OsglHAT1 localizes to the nucleus, where it likely functions through the regulation of transcription. Despite its positive agronomical effects on grain weight, yield, and plant biomass, the rare allele elevating OsglHAT1 expression has so far escaped human selection. Our findings reveal the first example, to our knowledge, of a QTL for a yield component trait being due to a chromatin modifier that has the potential to improve crop high-yield breeding.

KEYWORDS:

grain size; plant biomass; rice; weight; yield

PMID:
25535376
PMCID:
PMC4291654
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.1421127112
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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