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J Am Soc Nephrol. 2015 Jul;26(7):1747-54. doi: 10.1681/ASN.2014060556. Epub 2014 Dec 22.

Tissue Inhibitor Metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2)⋅IGF-Binding Protein-7 (IGFBP7) Levels Are Associated with Adverse Long-Term Outcomes in Patients with AKI.

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Section of Nephrology, Department of Medicine, University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois;
Department of Anesthesiology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee;
Department of Medicine, Divisions of Intensive Care Medicine and Nephrology, Washington DC Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Washington DC;
Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium;
Department of Anesthesiology, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida;
Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension and Division of Pulmonary Critical Care Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota;
Department of Nephrology, Hypertension, Diabetes and Endocrinology, Otto von Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany;
Statistics at Walker BioSciences, Carlsbad, California; and.
Center for Critical Care Nephrology, Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania


Tissue inhibitor metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2) and IGF-binding protein-7 (IGFBP7) have been validated for risk stratification in AKI. However, the association of urinary TIMP-2 and IGFBP7 with long-term outcomes is unknown. We evaluated the 9-month incidence of a composite end point of all-cause mortality or the need for RRT in a secondary analysis of a prospective observational international study of critically ill adults. Two predefined [TIMP-2]⋅[IGFBP7] cutoffs (0.3 for high sensitivity and 2.0 for high specificity) for the development of AKI were evaluated. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine risk for the composite end point. Baseline [TIMP-2]⋅[IGFBP7] values were available for 692 subjects, of whom 382 (55.2%) subjects developed stage 1 AKI (defined by Kidney Disease Improving Global Outcomes guidelines) within 72 hours of enrollment and 217 (31.4%) subjects met the composite end point. Univariate analysis showed that [TIMP-2]⋅[IGFBP7]>2.0 was associated with increased risk of the composite end point (hazard ratio [HR], 2.11; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.37 to 3.23; P<0.001). In a multivariate analysis adjusted for the clinical model, [TIMP-2]⋅[IGFBP7] levels>0.3 were associated with death or RRT only in subjects who developed AKI (compared with levels≤0.3: HR, 1.44; 95% CI, 1.00 to 2.06 for levels>0.3 to ≤2.0; P=0.05 and HR, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.32 to 3.53 for levels>2.0; P=0.002). In conclusion, [TIMP-2]⋅[IGFBP7] measured early in the setting of critical illness may identify patients with AKI at increased risk for mortality or receipt of RRT over the next 9 months.


epidemiology and outcomes; kidney; mortality

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