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Nat Rev Genet. 2015 Feb;16(2):98-112. doi: 10.1038/nrg3861. Epub 2014 Dec 23.

Emerging roles of tRNA in adaptive translation, signalling dynamics and disease.

Author information

1
1] Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany. [2] Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Institute of Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Glasgow, 120 University Place, Glasgow G12 8TA, UK.
2
1] Institute of Biochemistry and Biology, University of Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, 14476 Potsdam, Germany. [2] Institute of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Hamburg, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, 20146 Hamburg, Germany.

Abstract

tRNAs, nexus molecules between mRNAs and proteins, have a central role in translation. Recent discoveries have revealed unprecedented complexity of tRNA biosynthesis, modification patterns, regulation and function. In this Review, we present emerging concepts regarding how tRNA abundance is dynamically regulated and how tRNAs (and their nucleolytic fragments) are centrally involved in stress signalling and adaptive translation, operating across a wide range of timescales. Mutations in tRNAs or in genes affecting tRNA biogenesis are also linked to complex human diseases with surprising heterogeneity in tissue vulnerability, and we highlight cell-specific aspects that modulate the disease penetrance of tRNA-based pathologies.

PMID:
25534324
DOI:
10.1038/nrg3861
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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