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Environ Res. 2015 Feb;137:120-8. doi: 10.1016/j.envres.2014.12.007. Epub 2014 Dec 19.

Urinary levels of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, including bisphenols, bisphenol A diglycidyl ethers, benzophenones, parabens, and triclosan in obese and non-obese Indian children.

Author information

1
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, NY, USA.
2
Department of Endocrinology, Amrita School of Medicine, Amrita Institute of Medical Sciences & Research Centre, Kochi, Kerala, India.
3
Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, State University of New York at Albany, NY, USA; Biochemistry Department, Faculty of Science and Experimental Biochemistry Unit, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. Electronic address: Kurunthachalam.Kannan@health.ny.gov.

Abstract

Obesity has been recognized as a major global public health concern. In particular, childhood obesity is a major risk factor for other health issues, such as type 2 diabetes, in later stages of life. A few earlier studies have associated exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) with childhood obesity. There is limited information, however, on exposure to EDCs and childhood obesity in India. In this study, urinary levels of 26 EDCs were determined in 49 obese and 27 non-obese Indian children. Eleven EDCs, including 2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane (BPA), 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol (BPS), methyl paraben (MeP), ethyl paraben (EtP), propyl paraben (PrP), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB), 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (3,4-DHB), triclosan (TCS), benzophenone-3 (BP3), bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), and bisphenol A bis(2,3-dihydroxypropyl) glycidyl ether (BADGE·2H2O) were found in >70% of urine samples. No significant associations were found between childhood obesity and most target chemicals studied, except for 3,4-DHB, which showed a significant positive association. Urinary concentrations of 3,4-DHB were higher in obese children than in non-obese children, independent of age, sex, family income, parent education, physical activity, and urinary creatinine. Urinary concentrations of several EDCs were higher in Indian children than the concentrations reported for children in the USA and China. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report urinary concentrations of several EDCs in Indian children.

KEYWORDS:

BADGE; Biomonitoring; Bisphenol; Children; Endocrine disruption; Obesity; Parabens

PMID:
25531816
DOI:
10.1016/j.envres.2014.12.007
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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